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Nyctereutes procyonoides - Raccoon dog

French name:  Chien viverrin
Dutch name: Wasbeerhond
Family: Canidae
Group: Mammals
Origin: Asia
Habitat: terrestrial
Introduction:  unknown
ISEIA Score : 9
Naturalization in Belgium
First observation in the wild: 2010
Invasion stage: naturalization
Spatial distribution: isolated
Reproduction in the wild: yes
Dispersion potential: high
Natural habitats: high
More on invasiveness: Raccoon dog often lives near water and prefers moist deciduous/mixed forests with abundant undergrowth. It may also occur in wetlands and in a mosaic of woodlands and agricultural areas. It is a very good disperser (up to 150 km).
Distribution in Belgium
Established populations
absent from district
isolated populations (1-5 localities per district)
widespread (>5 localities per district)

Impacts on Species
Predation / Herbivory: medium
Competition: medium
Disease transmission: likely
Genetic effects: low
Impacts on Ecosystems
Nutrient cycling: low
Physical alteration: low
Natural successions: low
Food web alteration: unlikely
More on impacts: Raccoon dog is an opportunistic omnivore and has a very wide food niche. It behaves rather as a scavenger or a gatherer than as an active predator; its impact on prey species is considered as lower than this due to the activity of native predators as the red fox. It may have locally a limited impact on ground nesting birds and amphibian populations in wetlands. A moderate competition with red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and badger (Meles meles) is expected without causing significant decrease of any of the species abovementioned. A raise in the global densities of carnivores is rather observed in invaded areas. It is likely to facilitate the spread and enhancement of some endemic diseases and parasites in Europe like rabies, Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spp.
Data Source & References
Authors: Branquart Etienne, Licoppe Alain, Motte Grégory, Schockert Vinciane, Stuyck Jan, Van Den Berge Koen
Published on:  23 March 2009
Last update:  11 December 2013
Eronen, V. (2007)
Diet of raccoon dogs in the wetlands of Southern Finland.
In: abstract book of the 5th Environmental Symposium of the Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation (Alien Species): 33.
Godin J. (2005)
Les espèces animales invasives des milieux aquatiques et humides du bassin Artois-Picardie
Agence de l'Eau Artois-Picardie.
Kauhala, K. & Kowalczyk, R. (2011)
Invasion of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe: History of colonization, features behind its success, and threats to native fauna.
Current Zoology 57(5): 584−598.
Kowalczyk, R. (2006)
Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet Nyctereutes procyonoides
From online database of the North European and Baltic network on invasive alien species (NOBANIS).
Libois, R. (2006)
Les mammifères non volants de la région wallonne : tendances des populations.
Dossier scientifique réalisé dans le cadre de l'élaboration du Rapport analytique 2006 sur l'Etat de l'Environnement wallon, Unité de Recherches zoogéographiques, Université de Liège, 127 pp.
Léger, F. & Ruette, S. (2005)
Le chien viverin en France.
Faune sauvage 269: 4-13.
Mitchell-Jones, A. J., Amori, G., Bogdanowicz, W., Kryštufek, B., Reijnders, P. J. H., Spitzenberger, F., Stubbe, M., Thissen, J. B. M., Vohralík, V. & Zima, J. (1999)
The Atlas of European Mammals.
Poyser, London.
Mulder, J.L. (2011)
The raccoon dog in the Netherlands – a risk assessment.
Commissioned by Team Invasieve Exoten Ministerie van Economische zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie.
Nentwig, W., Kuhnel, E. & Bacher, S. (2009)
A Generic Impact-Scoring System Applied to Alien Mammals in Europe.
Conservation Biology 24(1): 302–311.
Singer, A., Kauhala, K., Holmala, K. & Smith, G.C. (2009)
Rabies in northeastern Europe—the threat from invasive raccoon dogs.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45(4):1121-1137.
Van Den Berge, K. & De Pauw, W. (2003)
Amerikaanse nerts, Wasbeer, Wasbeerhond.
In: S. Verkem et al. (eds), Zoogdieren in Vlaanderen, Natuurpunt Studie & JNM-Zoogdierenwerkgroep.
Van Den Berge, K. & Gouwy, J. (2009)
Exotic carnivores in Flanders area expansion or repeated new input ?
Proceedings of the Science facing Aliens Conference, Brussels, 11th May 2009.
Wittenberg, R. (2005)
An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland.
CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape. The environment in practice no. 0629: 155p.

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