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Mimulus guttatus - Monkeyflower

French name:  Mimule tacheté
Dutch name: Gele maskerbloem
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Group: Vascular plants
Origin: North America
Habitat: freshwater, terrestrial
Introduction:  agri- and horticulture
ISEIA Score : 10
Naturalization in Belgium
First observation in the wild: 1953
Invasion stage: naturalization
Spatial distribution: restricted
Reproduction in the wild: yes
Dispersion potential: high
Natural habitats: high
More on invasiveness: The Monkeyflower typically grows in disturbed areas of riverbanks (bare sediments and boulders) and is rarely found in adjacent marshes and wet meadows (where its establishment seems to be hindered by mollusc herbivory). This species colonises gaps in established vegetation. It can make large patches where tree cover is low and vegetation is dominated by light-demanding, ruderal and small-sized plant species, especially in upper reaches of streams. Plant density is favoured by grazing. It has a dual strategy of dispersal by seeds and vegetative fragments, produced under velocities typical of high flow conditions. It is in strong expansion along watercourses in Belgium since the last decade.
Distribution in Belgium
Established populations
absent from district
isolated populations (1-5 localities per district)
widespread (>5 localities per district)
Endangered areas
low risk
medium risk
high risk

Endangered Natura 2000 habitats ():
freshwater habitats: 3270
forest habitats: 91E0*91F0
Impacts on Species
Predation / Herbivory: low
Competition: medium
Disease transmission: low
Genetic effects: medium
Impacts on Ecosystems
Nutrient cycling: medium
Physical alteration: likely
Natural successions: likely
Food web alteration: low
More on impacts: Studies performed in CZ and UK show that Mimulus populations are subjected to strong inter-annual variations and mostly occur as discrete patches along streams causing no or low impact on native species. More dense patches are rarely observed in disturbed sediment communities. In that case, monkeyflower significantly alters both species composition and structure of riparian plant communities (Sparganio-Glycerion fluitantis, Bidentetea tripartiti).
Data Source & References
Authors: Baus Erika, Branquart Etienne, Vanderhoeven Sonia, Van Landuyt Wouter, Van Rossum Fabienne, Verloove Filip
Published on:  16 March 2009
Last update:  22 December 2010
Hejda, M. & Pyšek, P. (2008)
Estimating the community-level impact of the riparan alien species Mimulus guttatus by using a replicated BACI field experiment. - In Rabitsch, W., F. Essl & F. Klingenstein (Eds.): Biological Invasions – from Ecology to Conservation.
NEOBIOTA 7: 250-257.
Hejda, M., Pysek, P. & Jarosik, V. (2009)
Impact of invasive plants on the species richness, diversity and composition of invaded communities.
Journal of Ecology 97: 393–403.
Lambinon, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004)
Nouvelle fore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines.
Editions du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise.
Tokarska-Guzik, B. & Dajdok, Z. (2007)
Invasive Alien Species fact sheet, Mimulus guttatus.
From online database of the North European and Baltic network on invasive alien species (NOBANIS).
Truscott, A.M., Palmer, S.C.F., Soulsby, C. & Hulme, P.E. (2008)
Assessing the vulnerability of riparian vegetation to invasion by Mimulus guttatus: relative importance of biotic and abiotic variables in determining species occurrence and abundance.
Diversity & Distributions 14(2): 412-421.
Truscott, A.M., Palmer, S.C.F., Soulsby, C., Westaway, S. & Hulme, P.E. (2008)
Consequences of invasion by the alien plant Mimulus guttatus on the species composition and soil properties of riparian plant communities in Scotland.
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 10(4): 231-240.
Truscott, A.M., Soulsby, C., Palmer, S.C.F., Newell, L. & Hulme, P.E. (2006)
The dispersal characteristics of the invasive plant Mimulus guttatus and the ecological significance of increased occurrence of high-flow events.
Journal of Ecology 94: 1080–1091.
Verloove, F. (2006)
Catalogue of the Neophytes in Belgium (1800-2005).
Scripta Botanica Belgica 39, 89 pp.
van Kleunen, M. & Fischer, M. (2008)
Adaptive rather than non-adaptive evolution of Mimulus guttatus in its invasive range.
Basic and Applied Ecology 9(3): 213-223.
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