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© John M. Randall, the Nature Conservancy
© Delaware Wildflowers
© Nicolas Pipet
Ludwigia peploides - Water primrose

French name:  Jussie rampante
Dutch name: Kleine waterteunisbloem
Family: Onagraceae
Group: Vascular plants
Origin: South America
Habitat: freshwater
Introduction:  agri- and horticulture
ISEIA Score : 12
Naturalization in Belgium
First observation in the wild: 1995
Invasion stage: spread
Spatial distribution: isolated
Reproduction in the wild: yes
Dispersion potential: high
Natural habitats: high
More on invasiveness: L. peploides is an amphibious plant living in ponds, lakes, ditches, channels and slow-running rivers as well as in humid meadows. It shows a high tolerance to different water levels. Its growth is favoured by water eutrophication but the plant is able to develop in oligotrophic environments. Both clonal and sexual reproductions contribute to plant spread across watersheds.
Distribution in Belgium
Established populations
absent from district
isolated populations (1-5 localities per district)
widespread (>5 localities per district)
Endangered areas
low risk
medium risk
high risk

Endangered Natura 2000 habitats ():
freshwater habitats: 3130315032603270
Impacts on Species
Predation / Herbivory: low
Competition: high
Disease transmission: low
Genetic effects: unknown
Impacts on Ecosystems
Nutrient cycling: high
Physical alteration: high
Natural successions: high
Food web alteration: low
More on impacts: Water primroses are highly detrimental to the environment in Western Europe. They quickly develop and make very thick monospecific floating carpets at the surface of water bodies. They alter the physico-chemical quality of water (reduction of light and dissolved oxygen) and possess an allelopathic activity that influences the water quality throughout the year and reduces the germination and survival rates of other plant species. They outcompete most of native water plants and create an anoxic environment detrimental to many plant and animal species. In addition, they modify water flow and cause wetland drying.
Data Source & References
Authors: Branquart Etienne, Vanderhoeven Sonia, Van Landuyt Wouter, Van Rossum Fabienne, Verloove Filip
Published on:  19 November 2007
Last update:  11 December 2013
AEF (2006)
Cartes provisoires de la distribution de néophytes en Wallonie.
Unpublished document.
Dandelot, S. (2005)
Ecological, Dynamic and Taxonomic Problems Due to Ludwigia (Onagraceae) in France
Hydrobiologia 551 (1): 131-136.
Dandelot, S., Robles, C., Pech, N., Cazaubon, A. & Verlaque, R. (2008)
Allelopathic potential of two invasive alien Ludwigia spp.
Aquatic Botanic 88(4): 311-316.
Denys, L., Packet, J. & Van Landuyt, W. (2004)
Neofyten in het Vlaamse water : signalement van vaste waarden en rijzende sterren.
Natuur.focus 3(4): 120128.
Hussner, A. (2010)
Growth response and root system development of the invasive Ludwigia grandifl ora and Ludwigia peploides to nutrient availability and water level.
Fundam. Appl. Limnol., Arch. Hydrobiol. 177(3): 189–196.
Lambert, E., Dutartre, A., Coudreuse, J. & Haury, J. (2010)
Relationships between the biomass production of invasive Ludwigia species and physical properties of habitats in France.
Hydrobiologia 656(1): 173-186.
Lambinon, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004)
Nouvelle fore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines.
Editions du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise.
Muller, S. (2004)
Plantes invasives en France : état des connaissances et propositions d'actions.
Publication scientifique du Museum d'Histoire naturelle, Patrimoines naturels n°62.
Ruaux, B., Greulicha, S., Haury, J. & Berton, J.P. (2009)
Sexual reproduction of two alien invasive Ludwigia (Onagraceae) on the middle Loire River, France.
Aquatic Botany 90(2): 143-148.
Stiers, I., Mahy, G., Triest, L. & Saad, L. (2009)
Patterns and impact of highly invasive plant species (HIPS) on native vegetation in Belgium.
In: Branquart, E. & Segers, H. (Eds), Abstract volume of the Science facing Aliens Conference, Brussels: 17.
Stiers, S., Crohain, N., Josens, G. & Triest, L. (2009)
Impact of aquatic invasive species on native plant and benthic macro-invertebrate assemblages in Belgian ponds.
In: Branquart, E. & Segers, H. (Eds), Abstract volume of the Science facing Aliens Conference, Brussels: 52.
Thiébaut, G. (2007)
Non-indigenous aquatic and semiaquatic plant species in France.
In: F. Gherardi (Ed.), Biological invaders in inland waters: profiles, distribution and threats, Springer: 209-229.
Toussaint, B. & Bedouet, F. (2005)
Les espèces végétales invasives des milieux aquatiques et humides du bassin Artois-Picardie.
Agence de l'Eau Artois-Picardie, 38 pp.
Van Landuyt, W., Hoste, I., Vanhecke, L., Van den Bremt, P. Vercruysse, W. & De Beer, D. (2006)
Atlas van de Flora van Vlaanderen en het Brussels gewest.
Nationale Plantentuin en het Instituut voor Natuur- en Bosonderzoek i.s.m. Flo.Wer vzw.
Verloove, F. (2006)
Catalogue of the Neophytes in Belgium (1800-2005).
Scripta Botanica Belgica 39, 89 pp.
Weber, E. & Gut, D. (2004)
Assessing the risk of potentially invasive plant species in central Europe.
Journal for Nature Conservation12: 171-179.
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