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Cygnus atratus - Black swan

French name:  Cygne noir
Dutch name: Zwarte zwaan
Family: Anatidae
Group: Birds
Origin: Australia
Habitat: freshwater
Introduction:  unknown
ISEIA Score : 10
 
Naturalization in Belgium
First observation in the wild: 1995
Invasion stage: naturalization
Spatial distribution: isolated
Invasiveness
Reproduction in the wild: yes
Dispersion potential: high
Natural habitats: high
More on invasiveness: Although it is known to make dense colonies in its native range, the black swan does not seem to expand rapidly its populations in Belgium, probably as a consequence of frost sensitivity. Situation is likely to change due to climate warming. In Belgium, nesting habitat consists of marshy clay and gravelpits, ponds with riverine vegetation, old river arms and canals.
Distribution in Belgium
Established populations
absent from district
isolated populations (1-5 localities per district)
widespread (>5 localities per district)

Impacts on Species
Predation / Herbivory: likely
Competition: likely
Disease transmission: likely
Genetic effects: low
Impacts on Ecosystems
Nutrient cycling: likely
Physical alteration: likely
Natural successions: likely
Food web alteration: likely
More on impacts: Dense colonies may impair the development of submerged vegetation and outcompete native water birds from nesting sites. They are also likely to affect ecosystem functions.
Data Source & References
Authors: Anselin Anny, Branquart Etienne, Devos Koen, Paquet Jean-Yves, Vangeluwe Didier, Weiserbs Anne
Published on:  20 October 2011
Last update:  20 October 2011
References:
Dubois, P.J. (2007)
Les oiseaux allochtones en France : statut et interactions avec les espèces indigènes.
Ornithos 14: 329-364.
Hill, M. et al. (2009)
Developing an indicator of the abundance, extent and impact of invasive non-native species. Final report.
Defra, 49pp. (WC0718)
Jacob, J.P. et al. (Eds) (2009)
Atlas des oiseaux nicheurs de Wallonie.
Aves et Centre de Recherche de la Nature, des Forêts et du Bois (MRW, DGRNE), Série "Faune-Flore-Habitats".
Kumschick, S. & Nentwig, W. (2010)
Some alien birds have as severe an impact as the most effectual alien mammals in Europe.
Biological Conservation 143(11): 2757-2762.
Mitchell, S.F. & Wass, R.T. (1996)
Grazing by black swans (Cygnus atratus Latham), physical factors, and the growth and loss of aquatic vegetation in a shallow lake.
Aquatic Botany 55(3): 205-215.
Owen, M., Callaghan, D. & Kirby, J. (2006)
Guidelines on avoidance of introductions of non-native waterbird species.
AEWA Technical Series No.12, Bonn, Germany.
Vermeersch, G. & Anselin, A. (2009)
Broedvogels in Vlaanderen 2006-2007. Recente status en trends van Bijzondere Broedvogels en soorten van de Vlaamse Rode Lijst en/of Bijlage I van de Europese Vogelrichtlijn.
Mededelingen van het Instituut voor Natuur- en Bosonderzoek, Brussels, 99 pp.
Vermeersch, G., Anselin, A., Devos, K. , Herremans, M., Stevens, J., Gabriëls, J. & Van der Krieken, B. (2004)
Atlas van de Vlaamse broedvogels 2000-2002.
Mededelingen van het Instituut voor Natuurbehoud 23, Brussel, 495 pp.
Weiserbs, A. & Derouaux, A. (2009)
Elaboration de plans d'action pour des espèces problématiques dans la région de Bruxelles-Capitale : les espèces d'oiseaux d'eau naturalisées et domestiquées retournées à l'état sauvage.
Rapport technique, Aves, 57 pp.
Weiserbs, A. & Jacob, J.P. (2007)
Oiseaux nicheurs de Bruxelles 2000-2004: répartition, effectifs, évolution.
Aves, Liège, 292 pp.

 
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