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Dama dama - Fallow deer

French name:  Daim
Dutch name: Damhert
Family: Cervidae
Group: Mammals
Origin: Europe
Habitat: terrestrial
Introduction:  game/fish stocking
ISEIA Score : 10
Naturalization in Belgium
First observation in the wild: 1850
Invasion stage: naturalization
Spatial distribution: isolated
Reproduction in the wild: yes
Dispersion potential: high
Natural habitats: high
More on invasiveness: Fallow deer prefer deciduous open woodlands and conifer plantations with open areas. They are able to flourish in a very hot and dry climate but are very adaptable to almost all ecological conditions.
Distribution in Belgium
Established populations
absent from district
isolated populations (1-5 localities per district)
widespread (>5 localities per district)

Impacts on Species
Predation / Herbivory: medium
Competition: medium
Disease transmission: unknown
Genetic effects: low
Impacts on Ecosystems
Nutrient cycling: low
Physical alteration: medium
Natural successions: likely
Food web alteration: likely
More on impacts: Fallow deer can cause considerable damage to woodlands when populations are left unmanaged. At high densities, they can alter the structure of vegetation communities and cause biodiversity loss, although moderate deer densities tend to promote higher biodiversity. Above some density threshold, fallow deer can also cause the decline of roe deer populations (see Focardi et al. 2006).
Data Source & References
Authors: Branquart Etienne, D'aes Margo, Licoppe Alain, Manet Benoît, Motte Grégory, Schockert Vinciane, Stuyck Jan
Published on:  23 March 2009
Battersby, J. (2005)
UK mammals: species status and population trends.
JNCC/Tracking Mammals Partnership.
Focardi, S., Aragno, P., Montanaro, P. & Riga, F. (2006)
Inter-specific competition from fallow deer Dama dama reduces habitat quality for the Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus.
Ecography 29: 407-417.
Fuller, R.J.& Gill, R.M.A. (2001)
Ecological impacts of deer in woodland.
Forestry 74(3): 189-192.
Gill, R. (2000)
The impact of deer on woodland biodiversity.
Forestry Commission Information Note, 36.
Gill, R.M.A. (1992)
A review of damage by mammals in north temperate forest: 1. Deer.
Forestry 65(2): 145-169.
Gill, R.M.A. & Fuller, R.J. (2007)
The effects of deer browsing on woodland structure and songbirds in lowland Britain.
Ibis 149: 117-129.
Harris, S., Morris, P., Wray, S. & Yalden, D. (1995)
A review of British mammals: population estimates and conservation status of British mammals other than cetaceans.
Libois, R. (2006)
Les mammifères non volants de la région wallonne : tendances des populations.
Dossier scientifique réalisé dans le cadre de l'élaboration du Rapport analytique 2006 sur l'Etat de l'Environnement wallon, Unité de Recherches zoogéographiques, Université de Liège, 127 pp.
Mitchell-Jones, A. J., Amori, G., Bogdanowicz, W., Kryštufek, B., Reijnders, P. J. H., Spitzenberger, F., Stubbe, M., Thissen, J. B. M., Vohralík, V. & Zima, J. (1999)
The Atlas of European Mammals.
Poyser, London.
Moore, N.P., Hart, J.D. & Langton S.D. (1999)
Factors influencing browsing by fallow deer Dama dama in young broad-leaved plantations.
Biological Conservation 87(2): 255-260.
Moore, N.P., Hart, J.D. & Langton, S.D. (1999)
Factors influencing browsing by fallow deer in young broad-leaved plantations.
Biological Conservation 87 : 255-260.
Pascal, M., Lorvelec, OL, Vigne J.D., Keith, P. & Clergeau, P. (2003)
Evolution holocène de la faune de vertébrés de France: invasions et extinctions.
Putman, R.J. (2006)
Competition and resource partitioning in temperate ungulates assemblies.
Chapman & Hall.
Putman, R.J., Edwards, P.J., Mann, J.E.E., Howe, R.C. & Hill, S.D. (1989)
Vegetational and faunal change in an area of heavily grazed woodland following relief of grazing.
Biological Conservation 47, 13–32.
Ward, A.I. (2005)
Expanding ranges of wild and feral deer in Great Britain.
Mammal Review 35: 165-173.
White, P.C.L., Ward, A.I., Smart, J.C.R. & Moore, N.P. (2004)
Impacts of deer and deer management on woodland biodiversity in the English lowlands.
Final report, The Woodland Trust.
Wilson, C.J. (2003)
Current and future deer management options.
Report on behalf of defra european wildlife division ; DEFRA, Rural Development Service, 58pp.
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