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Psittacula krameri - Ring-necked parakeet

French name:  Perruche à collier
Dutch name: Halsbandparkiet
Family: Psittacidae
Group: Birds
Origin: Africa, Asia
Habitat: terrestrial
Introduction:  pets and domestic animals
ISEIA Score : 9
Naturalization in Belgium
First observation in the wild: 1966
Invasion stage: spread
Spatial distribution: restricted
Reproduction in the wild: yes
Dispersion potential: high
Natural habitats: high
More on invasiveness: Preferred habitats are parks, gardens and forests, especially in suburban areas. The ring-necked parakeet is however not restricted to (sub)urban environments as long as adequate food and enough cavities are available and temperatures do not drop too low. Both in the native and in the introduced regions, parakeet occurence is negatively correlated with the number of frost days.
Distribution in Belgium
Established populations
absent from district
isolated populations (1-5 localities per district)
widespread (>5 localities per district)

Impacts on Species
Predation / Herbivory: likely
Competition: medium
Disease transmission: likely
Genetic effects: low
Impacts on Ecosystems
Nutrient cycling: low
Physical alteration: low
Natural successions: low
Food web alteration: unknown
More on impacts: Ring-necked parakeets have the potential to outcompete native cavity-nesting species for nest sites as they begin nesting in late Ferbruary, before most native species. At high breeding densities, they may reduce population abundance of some hole-nesting vertebrates like the nuthatch Sitta europea. Effects on rare cavity-nesting birds are however not yet documented. In addition, they could become a serious agricultural pest (fruit trees, vineyards, etc.) and may carry diseases that could be harmful to poultry, native fauna and humans.
Data Source & References
Authors: Anselin Anny, Branquart Etienne, Strubbe Diederik, Weiserbs Anne
Published on:  29 June 2007
Last update:  29 September 2009
Bluekens, K. (2002)
Inleidende studie naart het nestgebruik van halsbandparkieten en de concurrentie met inheemse vogelsoorten.
Unpubl. Master Thesis, University of Antwerpen.
Butler, C. (2005)
Feral parrots in the continental United States and United Kingdom: Past, present and future.
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19: 142-149.
Butler, C. (2003)
Population Biology of the Introduced Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri in the UK.
Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Oxford.
Butler, C. (2002)
Breeding parrots in Britain.
British birds 95: 345-348.
Claes, D. & Matthysen, E. (2005)
Inleidende studie naar de voedselecologie en de mogelijke schadeproblematiek van de halsbandparkiet Psittacula krameri in Vlaanderen en Brussel.
Oriolus 70: 145-151.
Clergeau, P. & Vergnes, A. (2011)
Bird feeders may sustain feral Rose-ringed parakeets Psittacula krameri in temperate Europe.
Wildlife Biology 17(3):248-252.
Dewinck, S. (2005)
Écologie d’une espèce exotique invasive : la Perruche à collier Psittacula krameri.
Unpublished Master thesis, Université Libre de Bruxelles.
Jacob, J.P. et al. (Eds) (2009)
Atlas des oiseaux nicheurs de Wallonie.
Aves et Centre de Recherche de la Nature, des Forêts et du Bois (MRW, DGRNE), Série "Faune-Flore-Habitats".
Newson, S.E., Johnston, A., Parrott, D. & Leech, D.I. (2011)
Evaluating the population-level impact of an invasive species, Ring-necked Parakeet Psittacula krameri, on native avifauna.
Ibis 153(3): 509-516.
Pieterse, S. & Tamis, W. (2005)
Exoten in de Nederlandse avifauna: integratie of concurrentie?
Het Vogeljaar 53: 3-10.
Pithon, J.A. & Dytham, C. (2002)
Distribution and population development of introduced ring-necked parakeets Pisttacula krameri in Britain between 1983 and 1998.
Bird study 49: 110-117.
Scalliet, C. (1999)
Etude de l'adaptation et de l'impact de la perruche à collier Pisttacula krameri en milieu urbain bruxellois.
Unpubl. Master thesis, Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux.
Shwartz, A., Strubbe, D., Butler, C.J., Matthysen, E. & Kark, S. (2009)
The effect of enemy-release and climate conditions on invasive birds: a regional test using rose-ringed parakeet (Pisttacula krameri) as a case study.
Diversity and Distributions 15: 310-318.
Strubbe, D. (2004)
Habitatkeuze van Halsbandparkieten (Psittacula krameri) en mogelijke effecten op inheemse holenbroeders.
Eindverhandeling Universiteit Antwerpen.
Strubbe, D. & Matthysen, E. (2009)
Predicting the potential distribution of invasive ring-necked parakeets Psittacula krameri in northern Belgium using an ecological niche modelling approach.
Biological Invasions 11: 497-513.
Strubbe, D. & Matthysen, E. (2009)
Experimental evidence for nest-site competition between invasive ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) and native nuthatches (Sitta europaea).
Biological Conservation 142(8): 1588-1594.
Strubbe, D. & Matthysen, E. (2007)
Invasive ring-necked parakeets Psittacula krameri in Belgium: habitat selection and impact on native birds.
Ecography 30: 578-588
Strubbe, D. & Matthysen, E. (2009)
Establishment success of invasive ring-necked and monk parakeets in Europe.
Journal of Biogeography
Strubbe, D., Graham, C. & Matthysen, E. (2009)
Assessing the potential impact of invasive species on native biota: a case study on the invasion of ring-necked parakeets in northern Belgium.
Proceedings of the Science facing Aliens Conference, Brussels, 11th May 2009.
Strubbe, D., Matthysen, E. & Graham, C. (2010)
Assessing the potential impact of invasive ring-necked parakeets Psittacula krameri on native nuthatches Sitta europeae in Belgium.
Journal of Applied Ecology 47(3): 549–557.
Strubbe, D., Shwartz, A. & Chiron, F. (2011)
Concerns regarding the scientific evidence informing impact risk assessment and management recommendations for invasive birds.
Biological Conservation 144: 2112-2118.
Temera, K. & Arnhem, R. (1996)
Les perruches à collier (Psittacula krameri)victimes des conditions climatiques en région bruxelloise.
Aves 33: 128-129.
Vermeersch, G., Anselin, A., Devos, K. , Herremans, M., Stevens, J., Gabriëls, J. & Van der Krieken, B. (2004)
Atlas van de Vlaamse broedvogels 2000-2002.
Mededelingen van het Instituut voor Natuurbehoud 23, Brussel, 495 pp.
Weiserbs, A. & Jacob, J.P. (2007)
Oiseaux nicheurs de Bruxelles 2000-2004: répartition, effectifs, évolution.
Aves, Liège, 292 pp.
Weiserbs, A. et al. (2002)
Evaluation de l'incidence du développement des populations de perruches sur les habitats et les espèces indigènes en région bruxelloise.
Rapport final IBGE-AVES.
van Kleunen, A., van den Bremer, L., Lensink, R. & Wiersma, P. (2010)
De Halsbandparkiet, Monniksparkiet en Grote Alexanderparkiet in Nederland: risicoanalyse en beheer.
SOVON-onderzoeksrapport samengesteld in opdracht van Team Invasieve Exoten van het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit.

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