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Aix galericulata - Mandarin duck

French name:  Canard mandarin
Dutch name: Mandarijneend
Family: Anatidae
Group: Birds
Origin: Asia
Habitat: freshwater
Introduction:  pets and domestic animals
ISEIA Score : 8
Naturalization in Belgium
First observation in the wild: 1953
Invasion stage: spread
Spatial distribution: widespread
Reproduction in the wild: yes
Dispersion potential: high
Natural habitats: high
More on invasiveness: Pools, lakes and marshes surrounded by deciduous forest.
Distribution in Belgium
Established populations
absent from district
isolated populations (1-5 localities per district)
widespread (>5 localities per district)

Impacts on Species
Predation / Herbivory: low
Competition: unlikely
Disease transmission: unlikely
Genetic effects: low
Impacts on Ecosystems
Nutrient cycling: low
Physical alteration: low
Natural successions: low
Food web alteration: low
More on impacts: Negative impacts on biodiversity have not been recorded so far. Potential competition with hole-nesting vertebrates has been suggested whereas most of Belgian Mandarine ducks breed in nest boxes rather than in natural cavities (Weiserbs & Jacob 2007). The populations of Mandarin duck in its native range have been dramatically reduced by habitat changes (logging) and over-hunting; the European population might be of some importance for the conservation of this species.
Data Source & References
Authors: Anselin Anny, Branquart Etienne, Devos Koen, Paquet Jean-Yves, Strubbe Diederik, Vangeluwe Didier, Weiserbs Anne
Published on:  12 June 2007
Last update:  14 December 2011
Jacob, J.P. et al. (Eds) (2009)
Atlas des oiseaux nicheurs de Wallonie.
Aves et Centre de Recherche de la Nature, des Forêts et du Bois (MRW, DGRNE), Série "Faune-Flore-Habitats".
Owen, M., Callaghan, D. & Kirby, J. (2006)
Guidelines on avoidance of introductions of non-native waterbird species.
AEWA Technical Series No.12, Bonn, Germany.
Vermeersch, G., Anselin, A., Devos, K. , Herremans, M., Stevens, J., Gabriëls, J. & Van der Krieken, B. (2004)
Atlas van de Vlaamse broedvogels 2000-2002.
Mededelingen van het Instituut voor Natuurbehoud 23, Brussel, 495 pp.
Weiserbs, A. & Jacob, J.P. (2007)
Oiseaux nicheurs de Bruxelles 2000-2004: répartition, effectifs, évolution.
Aves, Liège, 292 pp.
Wittenberg, R. (2005)
An inventory of alien species and their threat to biodiversity and economy in Switzerland.
CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape. The environment in practice no. 0629: 155p.
del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. & Sargatal, J. (1992)
Handbook of the birds of the world, vol. 1
Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

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