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Solidago canadensis - Canada goldenrod

Synonym: Solidago altissima
French name:  Solidage du canada
Dutch name: Canadese guldenroede
Family: Asteraceae
Group: Vascular plants
Origin: North America
Habitat: terrestrial
Introduction:  agri- and horticulture
ISEIA Score : 11
Naturalization in Belgium
First observation in the wild: 1863
Invasion stage: spread
Spatial distribution: widespread
Reproduction in the wild: yes
Dispersion potential: high
Natural habitats: medium
More on invasiveness: S. canadensis is a pioneer and light-demanding species that occurs over a wide range of soil fertility and texture conditions, with a preference for nutrient-rich soils. It is mainly found in disturbed areas like railway or road verges, abandoned fields, etc. It can also grow in forest edges, open woodlands and natural grasslands.
Distribution in Belgium
Established populations
absent from district
isolated populations (1-5 localities per district)
widespread (>5 localities per district)
Endangered areas
low risk
medium risk
high risk

Endangered Natura 2000 habitats ():
grasslands: 6430
Impacts on Species
Predation / Herbivory: low
Competition: high
Disease transmission: low
Genetic effects: medium
Impacts on Ecosystems
Nutrient cycling: likely
Physical alteration: medium
Natural successions: high
Food web alteration: low
More on impacts: S. canadensis forms extensive clones with a high shoot density that spread rapidly by vegetative lateral growth and cover large areas. It can eliminate almost all other plant species; competitive ability is favoured by allelopathic interactions. Once established, the plant may remain dominant for a long period of time and often prevents natural colonisation by woody species.
Data Source & References
Authors: Branquart Etienne, Vanderhoeven Sonia, Van Landuyt Wouter, Van Rossum Fabienne, Verloove Filip
Published on:  05 July 2011
Last update:  05 July 2011
AEF (2006)
Cartes provisoires de la distribution de néophytes en Wallonie.
Unpublished document.
Abhilasha, D., Quintana, N. & Vivanco, J. (2008)
Do allelopathic compounds in invasive Solidago canadensis s.l. restrain the native European flora?
Journal of Ecology 96: 993–1001.
Kabuce, N. (2006)
Invasive alien species fact sheet Solidago canadensis.
From online database of the North European and Baltic network on invasive alien species (NOBANIS).
Lambinon, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004)
Nouvelle fore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines.
Editions du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique, Meise.
Muller, S. (2004)
Plantes invasives en France : état des connaissances et propositions d'actions.
Publication scientifique du Museum d'Histoire naturelle, Patrimoines naturels n°62.
Toussaint, B. & Bedouet, F. (2005)
Les espèces végétales invasives des milieux aquatiques et humides du bassin Artois-Picardie.
Agence de l'Eau Artois-Picardie, 38 pp.
Van Landuyt, W., Hoste, I., Vanhecke, L., Van den Bremt, P. Vercruysse, W. & De Beer, D. (2006)
Atlas van de Flora van Vlaanderen en het Brussels gewest.
Nationale Plantentuin en het Instituut voor Natuur- en Bosonderzoek i.s.m. Flo.Wer vzw.
Verloove, F. (2006)
Catalogue of the Neophytes in Belgium (1800-2005).
Scripta Botanica Belgica 39, 89 pp.
Weber E. (2011)
Strong regeneration ability from rhizome fragments in two invasive clonal plants (Solidago canadensis and S. gigantea)
Biological Invasions (2011) DOI 10.1007/s10530-011-9977-y
Weber, E. & Gut, D. (2004)
Assessing the risk of potentially invasive plant species in central Europe.
Journal for Nature Conservation12: 171-179.
Werner, P.A., Bradbury, I.K. and Gross, R.S. (1980)
The biology of Canadian weeds. 45. Solidago canadensis L.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science 60(4): 1393-1409.
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