Naturalization in Belgium
|First observation in the wild:
|Reproduction in the wild:
More on invasiveness: Muntjac is primarily associated with forest edges and dense deciduous, mixed or coniferous woodlands. It may also be found in gardens, coppice and scrubs areas. In England, Muntjac has increased its range and abundance at a rapid rate during the last decades. Today, it often reaches high population densities (up to 100 individuals/km2) due to a high population growth rate.
Impacts on Species
|Predation / Herbivory:
Impacts on Ecosystems
|Food web alteration:
More on impacts: Muntjac browses on shoots, stems and flower heads. At high densities, it is reported to decimate large areas of ground flora (including plants of conservation importance) and to reduce low woody vegetation (inhibition of coppice regrowth and tree regeneration). Alteration of insect and bird communities is also documented. Habitat overlap with roe deer is high in winter when both species aggregate on bramble, which may lead to roe deer outcompetition. Muntjac is a possible source of bovine tuberculosis and other diseases.
Data Source & References
||Branquart Etienne, Licoppe Alain, Motte Grégory, Schockert Vinciane, Stuyck Jan
||23 March 2009
||08 December 2016
Battersby, J. (2005)
UK mammals: species status and population trends.
JNCC/Tracking Mammals Partnership.
Chapman, N. & Harris, S. (1997)
Muntjac: where do we go from here?
In: C.R. Goldspink et al. (Eds), Population ecology, management and welfare of deer. Manchester Metropolitan University.
Cooke, A.S. & Lakhani, K.H. (1996)
Damage to coppice regrowth by muntjac deer Munitacus reevesi and protection with electric fencing.
Biological Conservation 75: 231-238.
Feber, R.E., Brereton, T.M., Warren, M.S. & Oates, M. (2001)
The impacts of deer on woodland butterflies: the good, the bad and the complex.
Forestry 74: 271–276.
Fuller, R.J.& Gill, R.M.A. (2001)
Ecological impacts of deer in woodland.
Forestry 74(3): 189-192.
Gill, R. (2000)
The impact of deer on woodland biodiversity.
Forestry Commission Information Note, 36.
Gill, R.M.A. (1992)
A review of damage by mammals in north temperate forest: 1. Deer.
Forestry 65(2): 145-169.
Gill, R.M.A. & Fuller, R.J. (2007)
The effects of deer browsing on woodland structure and songbirds in lowland Britain.
Ibis 149: 117-129.
Hemami, M.R., Watkinson, A.R. & Dolman, P.M. (2004)
Habitat selection by sympatric muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a lowland commercial pine forest.
Forest Ecology and Management 194: 49-60.
Pollard, E. & Cooke,A.S. (1994)
Impact of muntjac deer on egg-laying sites of the white admiral butterfly Ladoga camilla in a Cambridgeshire wood.
Biological Conservation 70: 189-191.
Ward, A.I. (2005)
Expanding ranges of wild and feral deer in Great Britain.
Mammal Review 35: 165-173.
White, P.C.L., Ward, A.I., Smart, J.C.R. & Moore, N.P. (2004)
Impacts of deer and deer management on woodland biodiversity in the English lowlands.
Final report, The Woodland Trust.