Home About BFIS Species List Risk Analysis Harmonia⁺ Resources Outputs Mailing List Registry
Contact us  |  Login  | 
© Etienne Branquart
© Etienne Branquart
© Etienne Branquart
© Bram D'hondt
© Etienne Branquart
© Etienne Branquart
Carpobrotus spp. - Hottentot fig

Synonym: Carpobrotus edulis, C. acinaciformis
French name:  Griffes de sorcières
Dutch name: Hottentotvijg
Family: Aizoaceae
Group: Vascular plants
Origin: Africa
Habitat: terrestrial
Introduction:  agri- and horticulture
ISEIA Score : 12
This species is not yet naturalised in Belgium.
Establishment potential in Belgium : high
It is already invasive in : France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom
Reproduction in the wild: no
Dispersion potential: high
Natural habitats: high
More on naturalization and invasiveness: Carpobrotus species are mainly found in coastal habitats (e.g. dunes, rock cliffs, grasslands and ruderal areas). They prefer warm temperate to dry climate and are sensitive to frost. Soil nitrogen levels limit their growth. They are considered to have a high invasion potential in the dune ecosystems of the Belgian coastal area. Seeds are adapted to endozoochory (e.g. deer, rats and rabbits) and may be dispersed by mammals over distances exceeding 1 kilometer.
Impacts on Species
Predation / Herbivory: low
Competition: high
Disease transmission: low
Genetic effects: low
Impacts on Ecosystems
Nutrient cycling: high
Physical alteration: high
Natural successions: high
Food web alteration: low
More on impacts: Under suitable environment conditions, Carpobrotus species form impenetrable mats and outcompete native plants. They can modify soil properties by increasing soil nitrogen and organic carbon contents and by reducing pH. Their development prevents sand movement in dune ecosystems.
Data Source & References
Authors: Baus Erika, Branquart Etienne, Vanderhoeven Sonia, Van Landuyt Wouter, Van Rossum Fabienne, Verloove Filip
Published on:  16 March 2009
Last update:  11 December 2013
Bourgeois, C., Suehs, C.M., Vidal, E. & Médail, F. (2005)
Invasional meltdown potential: Facilitation between introduced plants and mammals on French Mediterranean islands.
Ecoscience 12(2):248-256.
D'Antonio, C.M. (1990)
Seed production and dispersal in the non-native, invasive succulent Carpobrotus edulis (Aizoaceae) in coastal strand communities of central California.
Journal of Applied Ecology 27(2): 693-702.
Delipetrou, P. (2006)
Invasive alien species fact sheet, Carpobrotus edulis.
From online database of the DAISIE project (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories in Europe).
ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group) (2006)
Online fact sheets
Global Invasive Species Database, IUCN.
Muller, S. (2004)
Plantes invasives en France : état des connaissances et propositions d'actions.
Publication scientifique du Museum d'Histoire naturelle, Patrimoines naturels n°62.
Preston, C.D.& Sell, P.D. (1988)
The Aizoaceae naturalized in the British Isles.
Watsonia 17: 217-245.

© 2000-2021 by the Belgian Biodiversity Platform